BioCeuticals Armaforce For Juniors (150g)

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BioCeuticals Armaforce For Juniors (150g)

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  • Provides nutritional support for a normal healthy immune system and supports the body’s first line of natural defences, with vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc and quercetin.

  • Naturally sweetened with watermelon and berry fruit powders.

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Echinacea purpurea (echinacea) 

Echinacea is a herb traditionally used in WHM to help relieve the symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections.[1-3] The echinacea used in ArmaForce for Juniors is standardised to 1.5mg of cichoric acid. Cichoric acid is one of the main active constituents of echinacea.[4]

Sambucus nigra (black elder) 

Elderflower is used in WHM to aid symptomatic relief of the common cold, including nasal catarrh and sinus congestion due to its expectorant properties. Elderberry is also used in WHM as a diaphoretic and as support for a healthy immune system.[5-8]

Quercetin

Quercetin is an antioxidant flavonoid commonly found in berries.[9] Histamine is a compound released during allergic reactions and viral infections that results in “watery eyes” and a “runny nose”. In vitro studies suggest that quercetin down-regulates this allergic response by reducing the release of histamine and supporting mast cell and basophil integrity.[6]

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is one of the key nutrients necessary for the maintenance and integrity of mucosal barriers that comprise the immune system’s first line of defence against minor infections of the respiratory tract. Vitamin A is required for the functioning of a range of immune cells, including neutrophils, macrophages, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells.[10]

Vitamin C

Clinical trials have shown that vitamin C reduces the duration and severity of the common cold.[11-13] Vitamin C assists in modulating both innate and adaptive immunity through the stimulation of leukocytes and phagocytes.[6,14] During times of infection, concentrations of total vitamin C in plasma and leukocytes decline.[6]

Zinc

Zinc deficiency may impair immune function by reducing epithelial barrier function, decreasing cell-mediated immune responses, reducing T-lymphocytes, impairing macrophage function, reducing killer cells and decreasing antibody-dependent cytotoxicity.[15-17] Cells with high turnover, such as immune and epithelial cells, have a higher requirement for zinc.[18]

[1] Bradley P. British herbal compendium: a handbook of scientific information on widely used plant drugs. Bournemouth: British Herbal Medicine Association, 2006.
[2] Monograph: echinacea. Health Canada 2017. Viewed 19 Jan 2018, http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=echinacea.purpurea&lang=eng
[3] European Medicine Agency (EMA). European Union herbal monograph on Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, radix. Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products [online]. London: EMA, 2017. Viewed 19 Jan 2018, http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Herbal_-_Herbal_monograph/2017/08/WC500233238.pdf
[4] British Herbal Medicine Association (BHMA). British herbal pharmacopoeia, 4th ed. Exeter: BHMA, 1983.
[5] Bone K, Mills S. Principles and practice of modern phytotherapy, 2nd edition, 2013. Sydney: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2013.
[6] Braun L, Cohen M. Herbs and natural supplements: an evidence-based guide, 3rd ed. Syd-ney: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2010.
[7] Krawitz C, Mraheil MA, Stein M, et al. Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:16.
[8] Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, et al. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res 2004;32(2):132-140.
[9] Vitamin C, vitamin e, quercetin. Natural Medicines comprehensive database 2017. Viewed 27 Feb 2018, www.naturaldatabase.com
[10] Stephensen CB. Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr 2001;21:167-192.
[11] Hemila H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Da-tabase Syst Rev 2013;1:CD000980.
[12] Stipanuk MA, Caudill MA. Biochemical, physiological and molecular aspects of human nutri-tion, 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2013.
[13] Gropper SS, Smith JL. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism, 6th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.
[14] Drake VJ. Nutrition and immunity. Micronutrient information center, Linus Pauling Institute 2016. Viewed 27 Feb 2018, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/immunity.html
[15] Larson CP, Roy SK, Khan AI, et al. Zinc treatment to under-five children: applications to im-prove child survival and reduce burden of disease. J Health Popul Nutr 2008;26(3):356-365.
[16] Kurugöl Z, Akilli M, Bayram N, et al. The prophylactic and therapeutic effectiveness of zinc sulphate on common cold in children. Acta Paediatr 2006;95(10):1175-1181.
[17] Sheikh A, Shamsuzzaman S, Ahmad SM, et al. Zinc influences innate immune responses in children with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea. J Nutr 2010;140(5):1049-1056.
[18] Shils ME, Shike M (eds). Modern nutrition in health and disease, 10th edition. Lippincott Wil-liams & Wilkins, 2006.
[19] Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommittees on Upper Refer-ence Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of DRIs, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences, 2000.
[20] Herbert V. Hemochromatosis and vitamin C. Ann Intern Med 1999 Sep 21;131(6):475-476.
[21] Zinc. Micronutrient Information Center, Linus Pauling Institute 2015. Viewed 27 Feb 2018, http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/zinc/